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Tower cranes originated in Western Europe. A rotating crane with a boom mounted on the upper part of a tall tower. Large working space, mainly used for vertical and horizontal transportation of materials and installation of building components in house construction. It is composed of three parts: metal structure, working mechanism and electrical system. The metal structure includes the tower body, boom and base. The working mechanism has four parts: lifting, luffing, turning and walking. The electrical system includes motors, controllers, power distribution cabinets, connecting lines, signals and lighting devices, etc.
The tower crane is a rotating crane with a boom mounted on the upper part of a tall tower. The scope of work is large, mainly used for the vertical transportation of materials and the installation of components in the construction of multi-story and high-rise buildings. It is composed of three parts: metal structure, working mechanism and electrical system. The metal structure includes the tower body, boom, base, attachment rod, etc. The working mechanism has four parts: lifting, luffing, turning and walking. The electrical system includes motors, controllers, power distribution boxes, interconnecting lines, signal and lighting devices, etc.
Tower cranes are divided into two types: upper rotary type and lower rotary type:
1. Upper revolving tower crane: The tower body does not rotate, and the boom and balance arm above the slewing support make full slewing around the center line of the tower body through the slewing mechanism. According to the requirements of use, it is divided into running type, fixed type, attached type and internal climbing type. The running tower crane can run along the track, has a large working range and is widely used, and is suitable for the construction of multi-storey buildings; if the crane base is fixed on the track or the tower body is directly fixed on the foundation, it becomes a fixed tower crane. Its boom is long; if the fixed tower crane is connected to the building with attachment rods at every certain height, it is an attached tower crane. It adopts the tower body height connection device so that the upper part of the crane can follow the building. It is used for high-rise building construction; the crane is installed in the elevator shaft or other shaft or connected hole, and the hydraulic cylinder is used to make the crane climb up the shaft according to the construction process. It is called an inner-climbing tower crane. Part of the tower body is saved, the service scope is large, and the construction site is not occupied, but there are certain requirements for the structure of the building.
2. Lower rotating tower crane: The slewing support is installed between the base and the turntable. Except for the walking mechanism, other working mechanisms are arranged on the turntable to rotate together. In addition to the track type, there are also crawler type and tire type that use crawler chassis and tire chassis as the walking device. The whole machine has a low center of gravity, can be disassembled and transferred as a whole, is light and flexible, and has a wide range of applications. It is suitable for the construction of multi-storey buildings.
From the perspective of the technological development of tower cranes, although new products are emerging in endlessly, new products have improved production efficiency, simple operation, easy maintenance and reliable operation, but the technology of tower cranes has not fundamentally changed. The research on tower cranes is moving towards modular development. The so-called modular type is to take the tower body structure as the core. According to the structure and function characteristics, the tower body is divided into several parts, and according to serialization and generalization requirements, each part is divided into several modules according to the principle of modular system. According to parameter requirements, appropriate modules are selected to form tower cranes with different technical performance characteristics to meet the specific needs of construction. The implementation of modular tower cranes will help speed up the progress of tower crane product development, save product development costs, and better serve customers.
Tower cranes are divided into two categories: upper slewing tower crane and lower slewing tower crane. Among them, the bearing capacity of the former is higher than that of the latter. In many construction sites, what we see is an upper-rotating, upper-lifting and joint-high tower crane. According to whether it can be moved, it can be divided into walking type and fixed type. The tower body of the fixed tower crane is fixed and does not rotate. It is installed on a monolithic concrete foundation, or installed on a strip or X-shaped concrete foundation. The walking type can be divided into four types: crawler type, automobile type, tire type and track type. The fixed type is generally used in the construction of the house. According to its luffing method, it can be divided into horizontal boom trolley luffing and boom luffing; according to its installation form, it can be divided into three types: jack-up type, integral quick disassembly and assembly type. The most widely used are bottom slewing, quick disassembly, rail-mounted tower cranes, and self-elevating tower cranes that can be used for one machine and four purposes (rail-mounted, fixed, attached, and inner-climbing).